Is It Illegal to Marry Your Cousin in New Mexico? Here’s What the Law Says

The topic of cousin marriage often evokes strong reactions, ranging from curiosity to moral judgment. While the practice is more common in some parts of the world, it is often subject to legal restrictions or outright bans in many Western countries. In the United States, the legality of cousin marriage varies from state to state. Let’s explore the specific case of New Mexico and unravel what the law states regarding marrying one’s cousin.

New Mexico Law on Cousin Marriage

  • Legal Status: New Mexico is one of the states in the US that explicitly permits first-cousin marriage. There are no legal restrictions preventing cousins from marrying in New Mexico.
  • Restrictions: It’s important to note that while first-cousin marriages are legal, marriages between closer relatives (siblings, parents and children, aunts/uncles and nieces/nephews) are strictly prohibited in all US states.

Historical and Cultural Context of Cousin Marriage

  • Global Precedents: Cousin marriage has been historically practiced in various cultures around the world, often driven by factors such as maintaining property within families, strengthening social ties, and religious beliefs. Even historical figures, including Charles Darwin and Albert Einstein, married their first cousins.
  • Changing Social Perceptions: In many Western societies, including parts of the United States, the perception of cousin marriage has shifted over time. It is increasingly viewed as taboo or socially unacceptable. This change in perception is often associated with increased awareness of potential genetic risks.
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Arguments in Favor of Cousin Marriage

  • Individual Liberty and Choice: Proponents of cousin marriage often argue that the government should not interfere with the personal choices of consenting adults. They believe that individuals should have the right to marry whomever they choose, including their cousins.
  • Cultural Traditions: In some cultures, cousin marriage is a long-standing tradition with deep historical roots. For those who uphold these traditions, restricting cousin marriage can be seen as an infringement on their cultural practices.
  • Genetic Compatibility (in certain cases): While there is an increased risk associated with cousin marriage, some argue that couples with specific genetic backgrounds might actually benefit from marrying within the family to preserve beneficial traits.

Arguments Against Cousin Marriage

  • Increased Risk of Genetic Disorders: Medical studies have shown that children born to first-cousin couples have a slightly higher risk of birth defects and genetic disorders compared to children of unrelated parents. This risk is due to the increased chance of both parents carrying recessive genes for the same disorders.
  • Social and Ethical Concerns: Some people express strong ethical objections to cousin marriage, viewing it as morally questionable due to the close familial ties. There are also concerns about potential social stigma and the impact on family dynamics.

Public Opinion and Legal Trends

  • Shifting Attitudes: Public opinion on cousin marriage in the United States appears to be gradually shifting. While previously more accepted, there is growing opposition to the practice, particularly due to concerns about the potential health risks for offspring.
  • Potential for Legal Change: Given the changing social attitudes and increased understanding of genetic risks, it’s possible that states currently allowing cousin marriage, including New Mexico, may reconsider their laws in the future.
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Understanding the Genetic Risks

It’s crucial to delve deeper into the genetic risk factors associated with cousin marriage. Here’s a breakdown:

  • Recessive Genes: Everyone carries recessive genes, which are usually harmless unless an individual inherits two copies of the same recessive gene (one from each parent). First cousins share a greater percentage of their genes, increasing the chance that they both carry the same recessive gene for a disorder.
  • Common Disorders: Some of the genetic disorders with an increased risk in children of first-cousin couples include cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sachs disease, and certain types of intellectual disabilities.
  • Relative Risk: It’s important to emphasize that while the risk is increased, the absolute risk remains relatively low. Most children born to first cousins are perfectly healthy.

Counseling and Informed Decision-Making

  • Genetic Counseling: Couples considering cousin marriage are strongly advised to seek genetic counseling. Genetic counselors can assess individual risk factors, explain the potential risks, and help couples make informed decisions about family planning.
  • Prenatal Testing: If a couple chooses to proceed with a cousin marriage, prenatal testing options such as amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling can be used to screen for specific genetic disorders during pregnancy.


The decision of whether or not to marry a cousin is a deeply personal one. While New Mexico law allows first-cousin marriage, it’s essential for couples to weigh the potential benefits and risks carefully. Understanding the increased chance of genetic disorders, along with seeking genetic counseling, are crucial steps in making responsible and informed choices.

Ultimately, the legality of cousin marriage in New Mexico highlights the ongoing debate between individual liberty, cultural traditions, and the potential for health concerns. As scientific understanding evolves and social attitudes continue to shift, the future of cousin marriage laws in the United States remains uncertain.

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  • National Society of Genetic Counselors (NSGC):
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC):
  • New Mexico Statutes:
  • Research Studies (You can include specific research studies on the genetic risks of cousin marriage):
    • “Consanguineous marriages: Preconceptions and genetic counseling.” – Bittles, A. H., & Black, M. L. (2010). Journal of Genetic Counseling.
    • “The decline of cousin marriage: A review of evidence” – Robert L. Ober, MD (2023)

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