Is It Illegal to Marry Your Cousin in New York? Here’s What the Law Says

The concept of marriage between cousins evokes a variety of reactions, ranging from acceptance to strong disapproval. While some cultures have historically embraced cousin marriage, others view it as taboo or even illegal. Understanding the legal implications of cousin marriage, particularly in the state of New York, requires delving into a complex interplay of historical tradition, scientific considerations, and evolving societal norms.

This article aims to shed light on the legality of cousin marriage in New York, offering insights into the state’s laws, the potential genetic risks involved, and the ethical debates surrounding the issue.

Historical Context of Cousin Marriage

Throughout history and across various cultures, cousin marriage has been a relatively common practice. In some societies, it was even preferred, driven by factors such as maintaining family ties, consolidating wealth, and ensuring cultural continuity. Historical figures like Charles Darwin, Albert Einstein, and Edgar Allan Poe were all married to their first cousins.

However, in recent centuries, particularly in Western societies, perceptions of cousin marriage have shifted. Concerns about potential genetic risks and changing social norms have contributed to a decline in its frequency.

New York State Law on Cousin Marriage

In New York State, it is legal for first cousins to marry. The state’s Domestic Relations Law outlines prohibited degrees of kinship within which marriage is not permitted. These include:

  • Ancestors and descendants: Parents, grandparents, children, grandchildren, and so on.
  • Siblings: Full and half-siblings.
  • Aunts, uncles, nieces, and nephews.

Since first cousins are not included in this list, their marriage is considered legal in New York.

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Scientific and Genetic Considerations

One of the primary concerns raised in discussions of cousin marriage centers on the potential for increased genetic risks for offspring. Since first cousins share a set of grandparents, they have a greater likelihood of carrying the same recessive gene mutations. If both partners carry a recessive mutation for the same disease, their children have a 25% chance of inheriting two copies of the mutation, leading to the development of the disease.

While the risk for genetic disorders in offspring of first cousins is higher than that for unrelated couples, it is important to place this risk in perspective. The overall increase in risk remains relatively small. Research suggests that first cousins have an approximately 4-7% chance of having a child with a birth defect or genetic disorder, compared to a 3-4% baseline risk for the general population.

It is advisable for couples considering cousin marriage to consult with a genetic counselor. A genetic counselor can assess their family histories, discuss potential risks, and offer reproductive options if desired.

The Broader US Landscape

Laws regarding cousin marriage vary significantly across the United States. Currently, about half of US states permit first-cousin marriage, while others impose various restrictions or outright bans.

Ethical and Societal Debates

The issue of cousin marriage raises various ethical and societal concerns beyond just the scientific aspects. Arguments against cousin marriage often cite potential health risks to offspring, social stigma, or religious prohibitions. Some view it as an outdated practice that runs contrary to modern values.

Conversely, advocates for cousin marriage may argue for the right to personal choice, cultural preservation, and the fact that genetic risks, while present, are often over-emphasized. In cultures where cousin marriage has been a long-standing tradition, there may be a strong sense of its normalcy and social acceptance.

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The ethical and societal debates often intersect with religious perspectives. Some religions may explicitly prohibit or discourage cousin marriage, while others may express neutrality or even acceptance of the practice.

Individual Choice and Informed Consent

Despite varying social and ethical perspectives, in states like New York where cousin marriage is legal, the principle of individual choice remains paramount. Adults have the right to make informed decisions about their relationships and family planning, provided they are within the parameters of the law.

For couples contemplating cousin marriage, seeking genetic counseling is essential. This allows them to gain a personalized understanding of potential health risks and make informed choices. Informed consent ensures that individuals enter into such a union with full awareness and acceptance of any potential consequences.


In New York, the law explicitly permits marriage between first cousins. While this practice may be accompanied by increased genetic risk, this risk is small in the broader scheme of things and can often be managed through genetic counseling and informed decision-making. The debate over the ethics of cousin marriage is likely to continue, reflecting diverse cultural and religious viewpoints.

Ultimately, in states where cousin marriage is legal, the emphasis falls on individual choice and the importance of making informed decisions. It’s critical for couples considering this path to be fully aware of potential risks and to engage in open and honest communication within their families and with healthcare professionals.

FAQs: Cousin Marriage in New York

  1. Can I legally marry my first cousin in New York?

Yes. New York State law allows for marriages between first cousins.

  1. Are there any restrictions on marrying other relatives in New York?
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Yes. New York prohibits marriages between people who are closely related, including parents and children, siblings, and aunts/uncles and nieces/nephews.

  1. Are there any health risks associated with marrying my cousin?

First cousins have a slightly increased risk (4-7%) of having a child with a birth defect or genetic disorder compared to the general population (3-4%). This risk is small, but it’s advisable to consult a genetic counselor if you are considering cousin marriage.

  1. What is genetic counseling, and why is it important for couples considering cousin marriage?

Genetic counseling involves meeting with a specialist who can assess your family history, discuss the risks of having a child with a genetic condition, and help you make informed decisions about family planning. It’s essential for couples related as first cousins to seek this guidance.

  1. Where can I find a genetic counselor?

You can find a genetic counselor through referrals from your doctor, by searching online directories like the National Society of Genetic Counselors (, or by contacting your local hospital or health center.

  1. What are the societal views on cousin marriage in New York?

Views on cousin marriage in New York are mixed. While legal, some may view it negatively due to historical taboos or concerns about genetic risks. Others may accept it as a personal choice or as part of certain cultural traditions.

  1. If I marry my cousin in New York, will our marriage be recognized in other states?

Generally, yes. Marriages that are valid where they are performed are usually recognized in other states, even if those states have laws against cousin marriage. However, there may be specific exceptions, so it’s important to consult with an attorney if you have concerns.

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